Why Trauma-Informed Digital Design is Relevant in 2022
Written by DR SHAUN DANQUAH & PAUL ADDAE Aug 01, 2022

Categories: Blog, CR Blogs

“The ubiquity of the internet as an information source for healthcare is a phenomenon that directly influences health services.”



In 2021, Centric embarked on a project to look at why communities in Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham were becoming increasingly sceptical of healthcare services and medical institutions. Two of the primary insights from that project were: people had been through traumatic experiences while in healthcare settings – which impacted their trust in health services. Plus, black women had distrust and cynicism of healthcare services as a result of poor maternal health experiences.

It was evident that there was distrust in healthcare institutions, systems and services indicative of the current crisis of epistemic trust (Goldenberg, 2021) facing public health, reflective of the wider societal trend of distrust of government (Hardin, 2004), politics (Claude and Hawkes, 2020), science and media (Birkhead et al., 2022: 269; Warner and Lightfoot, 2014: 452; Stoto et al., 1996: 11).

For black women in particular, tangible reasons exist for mistrust such as morally and ethically questionable instances where black women were abused through medical research and unethical experimentation (Smedley et al., 2003: 131). This has been discussed by medical ethicist Washington (2006) who has discussed the role of James Marion Sims, regarded as the ‘father of gynaecology’. Hence, Washington has noted (2015) that “it is not merely about conspiracy theory, but conspiracy fact” when discussing the tangible reasons as to why black communities may not trust health and medical services and systems.

Mistrust and fear of healthcare systems can lead to barriers in accessing services and care, thereby exacerbating health disparities. Medical mistrust can also be instilled when mental health provision and delivery is inadequate and deficient (Ball and Strekalova, 2020: 219). Misdiagnoses are less likely to occur, and communication is more efficient, when there is cultural representation in the profession, along with a comprehension of the cultural context of the patient.

This is pertinent to consider as patients come to grips with the digital shift and navigating the management of their chronic conditions, mental health and trauma around digital tech applications and platforms which can be both cumbersome and unsafe. This requires us to consider the design of digital applications, online platforms and new tech when embarking on supporting people who may have experienced trauma while in healthcare settings.

Background and Context

Stafford et al. (2019: 570) note in their paper on the management of haemorrhage during pregnancy in the book Critical Care Obstetrics:

Preeclampsia is the most common risk factor and is found in approximately 50% of women with placental abruption. Other risk factors include pre-term premature rupture of membranes, polyhydramnios, advanced maternal age, cocaine use, smoking, multiparity, chorioamnionitis, hypothyroidism, assisted reproductive technology, blunt trauma and possibly thrombophilia. Black women are more at risk than other population groups.

Black women also face major barriers to postpartum mental health care yet, are less likely to connect with perinatal mental health specialists after giving birth.

Our research in 2021 revealed a strong need for support wherein women could talk though their experiences with healthcare. There is a demand for a different complaint and resolution system and a better way to help mothers, and fathers, know where to go for open discussion, mediation, resolution and importantly, quick acknowledgement of the need for redress. This is what is referred to as restorative practice and is among the repertoire of trauma-informed care, which has huge potential. Harper (2021: xv) notes:

There is a growing body of qualitative research focused on the life-or-death decisions affecting Black women’s pregnancy, labour, birth and post-partum care. NPR and ProRepublica, in a joint endeavour, collected over 200 stories from African American mothers across the country who shared their birth experiences. Overwhelmingly, Black mothers reported being devalued, disrespected and treated with contempt. In a 2019 survey of 212 Black mothers, Harper reported that 77.89 percent of respondents felt that African American mothers do not receive the same level of care as White mothers when dealing with labour and delivery staff. In the same study, 22.11 percent said yes, Black mothers received the same level of care.

Reflective of the current health market, and of nearly two decades of anticipation and theory accelerated due to the COVID-19 pandemic, new technologies are developing swiftly. This can be seen in mental health and with the greater public exposure the issue has received with celebrity involvement. The convergence of mounting costs, the reorganisation of health services, shifting patient behavioural patterns, increasing time constraints and the epidemiological profile change has caught the attention of healthcare solution providers on one hand, and tech developers on the other, broadening access and reducing costs (Lee and Han, 2015).

The ubiquity of the internet as an information source for healthcare is a phenomenon that directly influences health services, through easy access, patient empowerment, direct and fast information, relationships between patients and health professionals. All of these make the role of health service users more relevant (Lee et al., 2015).

Stawartz et al. (2015) suggested in their research real-time engagement is preferred by users in apps for mental health, reminders and notifications to engage and links to additional crisis support. Stawartz et al. also found users appreciated user discretion, accessibility and portability. Chopik (2016) noted social technology use was associated with higher subjective wellbeing, less depressive symptoms in older adults, fewer chronic illnesses and better self-rated health.

In their study on digital mental health services (DMHS) in Australia, Titov et al. (2020) note the benefits of such services outweigh the challenges. They note DMHS should include assessment and information services, robust systems for training therapists and specialist skills to operate the services. They mention future mental health policies can be formulated based on data from such services.

Additionally, AI diagnostic tools on apps and platforms are inexpensive, may remove the stigma associated with mental health, improve predictability as they monitor signs common in deterioration and provide 24hr support*. They also give advice on diet, supplements, lifestyle and medication. ML algorithms can include research-based objective tests which indicate the need to seek treatment, plus evidence-based data and medical based practices.

Initially, all of this shows the significance of designing precise and time-limited value-based goals, along with reminder notifications that appear on the same device on which many of the training activities occur. Concern nevertheless has been expressed by Zuboof (2019) who discusses how devices are developed and deployed to mine our daily behaviour. This then gets processed into data which is fed into learning algorithms in bulk to find patterns and correlations, via AI. Our behaviour thus becomes a flow of data which no longer belongs to us and becomes the exclusive property of an entity for their manipulation.

Subsequently, it also reveals there must be trauma-informed digital design when composing and rolling out such new tech solutions which takes into consideration these concerns around digital trust ensuring anonymity, privacy and safety online. It must not become a mere dump to collate our actions via AI.

Trauma-Informed Care

Trauma is the experience and subsequent repercussion of an extremely distressing event or series of events. People can experience a traumatic event differently, which leads to different types of adverse effects on mental, physical, social, emotional and/or spiritual well-being. Not everyone who experiences something traumatic will be traumatised, yet for many people trauma may create a radical shift in how the mind and brain manage perception. (Chen et al., 2022: 2).

Trauma often manifests in traumatic stress reactions, described by researchers as “normal human survival [instincts]”, developed in response to the traumatic event(s) that serve to protect from further harms. Trauma reactions can happen during or after the traumatic event — and can continue for months or years. Chen et al. (2022: 2) note responses can emerge in various aspects of a person’s life:

      1. Physically, including trouble sleeping, hyperarousal of the nervous system, or extreme fatigue.
      2. Emotionally, including a diverse set of reactions spanning anxiety, grief, shame and severe mood-swings.
      3. Behaviourally, for example, avoiding situations similar to the traumatic event or engaging in high-risk behaviours.
      4. Cognitively, which may include hypervigilance to threats, self-blame, flashbacks, intrusive thoughts, or difficulty making decisions; and
      5. Existentially, which may include hopelessness or cynicism, or alternatively renewed faith or increased confidence in one’s own resilience.

The emerging notion of trauma-informed care involves:

      1. Realising the prevalence of trauma;
      2. Recognising how trauma and exposures to violence, especially cumulative, affects people; and
      3. Responding, by putting this knowledge into practice (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine, 2016: 20).

Adopted from the mental health field, the concept promotes consideration of the perspectives of survivors of trauma. It also highlights how treatment environments can contribute to re-traumatisation.

Note that it is important black women have access to therapists who practice trauma-informed care in a culturally sensitive manner. Mindfulness is one way in which this can be achieved (Williams, 2021: 111). Van der Kolk (2014) explains that self-awareness is a key component to healing from trauma and noticing our own annoyance, nervousness and anxiety can immediately shift our perspectives to react in healthier ways.

A ‘Cultural Mediative’ Approach to Trauma-Informed Care

There are African originated inclusive decision-making and resolution approaches to finding solutions which we opine are of use when addressing trauma. These are rooted in ancestral conflict resolution processes which are also still relevant to the modern urban locale where offstage and hidden transcripts abound. Powell-Bennett states (2017: 105):

Another reason why African American respondents’ willingness to use mediation showed a high frequency may have been due to their African ancestors’ traditional tendency to use a third-party intervention, such as elders in their community.

In some African tribes and ethnic groups, mediators are family or community elders freely chosen by the parties, who play a strictly neutral role (Sone, 2016: 54). In these groups, mediators listen to each party’s side and encourage them to also actively listen, understand and appreciate the perspectives and interests of the other party. The mediators facilitate a process to enable all to find a solution that is satisfactory, without imposing a solution and sharing power.

This African centred approach has buy-in from sections that are either distrustful of dominant institutions or, disconnected from Eurocentric organisational structures that may have played a role in traumatic events and are often colonial, paternalistic, patronising and authoritarian. African mediation is more active and includes making recommendations, assessments, conveying suggestions, reviewing agreements, revising etc. (Ajayi and Buhari, 2014: 150).

Clinical, colonial and authoritarian approaches to finding solutions are not trusted by many people in the urban locale as they lack relationship equity which is a feature of mediation systems originating in Africa. This means mediation should be a sought-after aim, where necessary, in cases where research participants indicate problems with dominant institutions or structures. This cultural mediative approach can play a key role in trauma-informed care in the urban locale.

Digital and Tech Innovations to Impact Behaviour Change and Cultural Appropriacy

It’s important to initially recognise factors which influence one’s ability to engage in health behaviours when thinking about health behaviour change initiatives. Sabharwal et al. (2020: 38) posit that individual influences on engagement in health behaviours can include a person’s cognitive abilities (nonmodifiable) and one’s own knowledge or beliefs about their condition (modifiable).

For instance, the nonmodifiable being the influences of one’s family and personal support network on engagement in health behaviours. While the modifiable refers to the involvement of family members around one’s disease management. Tech-based approaches to behaviour change may have promise for some modifiable influences. Digital tech tools which share the data with one’s social and peer network, and provide encouraging feedback, can target modifiable individual and interpersonal influences such as motivation, confidence and social support.

Ramos and Chavira (2019), in their analysis of behavioural intervention technologies (BIT) among minority communities, offer that many of the studies highlighted the following cultural adaptations which were made for app-based BIT. Heilemann et al. (2017) made use of Latino actors, plus focus group and interview feedback on relatability and appropriacy of stories for psychological education. While Muroff et al. (2017) for the app-based cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) had some material translated into Spanish for Latino communities.

For online web-based BIT, Ramos and Chavira revealed in some cases no cultural adaptations were made (Baggett et al., 2017; Cheng et al., 2019; Kelman et al., 2018). In some cases, CBT material was translated into Spanish, vocabulary was adapted, culturally relevant examples were utilised, social support system incorporated into intervention and religious components addressed where appropriate.

This was adopted by Muñoz et al., 2014; Barrera et al., 2015 in their randomised controlled trial on online prevention of postpartum depression for Spanish and English-speaking pregnant women; Muñoz et al., 2016). Choi et al. (2012) noted an online CBT intervention in Australia with a Chinese community (the ‘Brighten Your Mood’ program) translated material into Chinese, as also done by Liu et al (2014), and included illustrations of people of Chinese and Far East Asian features. Concepts were also modified in tandem with Chinese culture and there was an emphasis on challenging cultural myths about depression.

Trauma-informed Digital Design Principles

Kezelman and Preston (2015) have articulated the following principles for trauma-informed digital design:

  • Any written content should be at a basic reading level, that a 12-year-old can comprehend.
  • Content has to be unassuming in tone and inclusive.
  • Reduce cognitive load, by decreasing visual clutter.
  • More calming colour palettes to be used, with warmer and more support tones incorporated.
  • Any photographic images must consider potential triggers.
  • Ensure representation of the diversity of the audience.

Trauma-Informed Digital Technologies: Key Areas of Consideration

The main areas of consideration for trauma-informed digital technologies are:


  • Disable auto-play functions on videos and audios.
  • Quick exit functions.
  • Users of apps and digital platforms etc. can preserve their anonymity and hide their identities.


  • Logos indicating government, authority, institutions, corporations etc. should be removed.
  • Fonts should be simple.
  • Font sizes should be larger to facilitate better readability and scanning ability.


  • Reduce cognitive load.
  • Avoid asking probing and intrusive questions to users.
  • Limit complicated and superfluous features.
  • Provide options for support, such as live-chat, return calling and related browsing opportunities.
  • Limit the number of navigation options.

Safety, trustworthiness and choice are therefore the key aspects of trauma-informed digital design.


Online and in-person support communities, where women can talk openly and honestly about their motherhood experiences and mental health without the need to put up a “strong female” persona can be useful, as similar initiatives from the US reveal. Sad Girls Club is one of a few digital spaces working to treat the symptoms of traumatic births – although these interventions are a drop in the ocean in light of the structural challenges and institutional healthcare failures around black maternal care.

Trauma-informed digital design recognises trauma and its impact and acknowledges digital technologies can trigger trauma, so there must be a commitment to advance ways to avoid tech-related re-traumatisation. A mere software update, website crashing or email changing can indicate for some people they are being hacked and violated.

This can result in trauma-related reactions such as numbness, hypervigilance or hopelessness (Fleischmann, 2022). Chen et al. (2022) in their paper “Trauma-Informed Computing: Towards Safer Technology Experiences for All” posit the following suggestions to make computing safe, such as:

  • Conducting user studies in a safe and secure location.
  • Providing clear information when software updates are pending.
  • Creating content policies with input from affected communities.
  • Providing training and resources to help tech designers work better with trauma survivors.

From much of the research on therapeutic digital interventions, it’s noted that cultural appropriacy must also be taken into consideration, as is what we coin as a ‘cultural mediative’ method. Even ‘mindfulness’, for example, for people from many communities is not necessarily instilled by yoga and meditation. There are also questions relating to what extent these forms of mindfulness have merely been appropriated from India.

Therefore, Martinez (2021) has noted that the design of digital mental health in some instances may have to adapt tools for people of different languages, ages, cultures etc. This is relevant as Insel (2019) argues that the ‘digital divide’ is more along the lines of age than it is across socio-economic, racial or international factors.

At this juncture it is worth us sharing some important insight regarding the therapeutic value of a cultural mediative approach with people with MLTCs in Lambeth. In a recent project on chronic pain, where Centric partnered with Lambeth-based GP, Dr Dianne Aitkin and the Lambeth Wellbeing Alliance, we conducted an exceptional focus group, which all occurred online, revealing:

  • The importance of putting community forward in terms of race and culture; and
  • The role Centric played as careful mediators was immense, and the trust and rapport developed was positive.

We therefore opine this supportive group approach, which involved a sample of people in Lambeth suffering chronic pain, can be replicated across SEL ICS and involving local people for a range of other MLTCs. The participants expressed at the end of the sessions, which ran for about an hour and a half, they thoroughly appreciated the session, if there would be more and importantly - that they actually felt better when talking about their conditions in this format.

Our upcoming work on restorative practice for black maternal care fits into this when it comes to culturally sensitive nuances in black women in maternity. This is not something which everyone can do and we argue there is scope for this to develop into a potential pilot service offering. The aspect of talking, though simple, can instill optimism, time, empathy allowing for expression of any concerns and the therapeutic sharing of experiences with people in a similar situation. A support group structure within a safe space.

This approach adopted by Centric also helps to address the distrust sentiment which is prevalent across the urban locale. There is a large cohort unwilling to engage with healthcare and we also found some of the participants were initially apprehensive of participating.

When they did, they found the process therapeutic, supportive and potentially reduced trauma. This way of facilitating difficult conversations and dialogue we feel is significant. This field requires that young people are also trained in digital skill development and future media skills, for people to continue this type of work and communities take ownership of narratives around trauma which particularly impact them.


* Dr David Codyre (2019) from New Zealand notes that person-to-person support can be given more attention with the aid of these platforms and apps.


  • Ajayi, A.T. and Buhari, L.O. (2014). “Methods of Conflict Resolution in African Traditional Society.” African Research Review, 8(2), 138-157. Accessed Online February 2022: Methods of Conflict Resolution in African Traditional Society | African Research Review (ajol.info).
  • Baggett, K., Davis, B., Feil, E., Sheeber, L., Landry, S., Leve, C., & Johnson, U. (2017). “A randomized controlled trial examination of a remote parenting intervention: Engagement and effects on parenting behavior and child abuse potential.” Child Maltreatment, 22(4), 315–323. Accessed Online August 2021: A Randomized Controlled Trial Examination of a Remote Parenting Intervention: Engagement and Effects on Parenting Behavior and Child Abuse Potential (nih.gov).
  • Ball, B. and Strekalova, Y.A. (2020). “Combating Mental Health Stigma in Underserved Black Communities: A Three-on-Three Basketball Intervention.” Lance R. Lippert, Robert D. Hall, Aimee E. Miller-Ott and Daniel Cochece Davis (eds.), Communicating Mental Health: History, Context and Perspectives. Lanham, MD and London: Lexington Books. 217-239.
  • Barrera, A.Z., Wickham, R.E., and Muñoz, R.F. (2015). “Online prevention of postpartum depression for Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women: A pilot randomized controlled trial.” Internet Interventions, 2(3), 257–265. Accessed Online August 2021: Online prevention of postpartum depression for Spanish- and English-speaking pregnant women: A pilot randomized controlled trial (core.ac.uk).
  • Birkhead, G., Morrow, C.B. and Pirani, S. (2022). Public Health: What It Is and How It Works. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.
  • Chen, J.X., McDonald, A., Zou, Y., Tseng, E., Roundy, K.A., Tamersoy, A., Schaub, F., Ristenpart, T., Dell, N. (2022). “Trauma-Informed Computing: Towards Safer Technology Experiences for All.” CHI ’22: Proceedings of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. April 2022. Article no. 544, pp.1-20. Accessed Online July 2022: Trauma-Informed Computing: Towards Safer Technology Experiences for All (nixdell.com).
  • Cheng, P., Luik, A.I., Fellman-Couture, C., Peterson, E., Joseph, C. L., Tallent, G., & Drake, C. L. (2019). “Efficacy of digital CBT for insomnia to reduce depression across demographic groups: A randomized trial.” Psychological Medicine, 49(3), 491–500. See: Efficacy of digital CBT for insomnia to reduce depression across demographic groups: a randomized trial - PubMed (nih.gov).
  • Choi, I., Zou, J., Titov, N., Dear, B.F., Li, S., Johnston, L., and Hunt, C. (2012). “Culturally attuned internet treatment for depression amongst Chinese Australians: A randomised controlled trial.” Journal of Affective Disorders, 136(3), 459–468. See: Culturally attuned Internet treatment for depression amongst Chinese Australians: a randomised controlled trial - PubMed (nih.gov).
  • Chopik, W. (2016). “The Benefits of Social Technology Use Among Older Adults Are Mediated by Reduced Loneliness.” Cyberpsychology, Behaviour and Social Networking, 19(9). 551-6.
  • Claude, K.M. and Hawkes, M.T. (2020). “Ebola Crisis in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: Student-led community engagement.” Pathogens and Global Health, 114(4), 218-223.
  • Fleischmann, T. (2022). “Considering trauma in tech design could benefit all users.” Cornell Chronicle, June 8, 2022. Accessed Online July 2022: Considering trauma in tech design could benefit all users | Cornell Chronicle.
  • Goldenberg, M. (2021). Vaccine Hesitancy: Public Trust, Expertise and the War on Science. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Harper, K.C. (2021). The Ethos of Black Motherland in America: Only White Women Get Pregnant. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books.
  • Heilemann, M.V., Soderlund, P.D., Kehoe, P., and Brecht, M.L. (2017). “A transmedia storytelling intervention with interactive elements to benefit Latinas’ mental health: Feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy.” JMIR Mental Health, 4(4)e47. Accessed Online August 2021: PowerPoint Presentation (mit.edu).
  • Insel, T. (2021). “Barriers and Opportunities in Mental Health Innovation.” Interview with the Going Digital: Behavioral Health Tech YouTube Channel. 17 October 2020. Accessed Online: July 2021.
  • Kelman, A.R., Evare, B.S., Barrera, A.Z., Muñoz, R.F., & Gilbert, P. (2018). “A proof-of-concept pilot randomised comparative trial of brief internet-based compassionate mind training and cognitive-behavioural therapy for perinatal and intending to become pregnant women.” Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 25(4), 608–619. See: A proof-of-concept pilot randomised comparative trial of brief Internet-based compassionate mind training and cognitive-behavioural therapy for perinatal and intending to become pregnant women - PubMed (nih.gov).
  • Lee, E. and Han, S. (2015). “Determinants of adoption of mobile health services.” Online Information Review, 39(4), 556–573.
  • Lee, K., Hoti, K., Hughes, J.D. and Emmerton, L. M. (2015). “Consumer use of “Dr Google”: A survey on health information seeking behaviors and navigational needs.” Journal of Medical Internet Research, 17(12), e288.
  • Liu, N.H., Contreras, O., Muñoz, R.F., & Leykin, Y. (2014). “Assessing suicide attempts and depression among Chinese speakers over the internet.” Crisis, 35(5), 322–329. See: Assessing suicide attempts and depression among Chinese speakers over the Internet - PubMed (nih.gov).
  • Martinez-Martin, N. (2021). “Equity Access in Digital Mental Health.” Race in Science, Technology and Medicine Series, Stanford University. May 12th 2021. Available to see on Ethics in Society Youtube Channel. Accessed Online: August 2021.
  • Muñoz, R.F., Bunge, E.L., Chen, K., Schueller, S.M., Bravin, J.I., Shaughnessy, E.A., & Pérez-Stable, E.J. (2016). “Massive open online interventions.” Clinical Psychological Science, 4(2), 194–205.
  • Muñoz, R. F., Chen, K., Bunge, E. L., Bravin, J. I., Shaughnessy, E. A., & Pérez-Stable, E. J. (2014). “Reaching Spanish-speaking smokers online: A 10-year worldwide research program.” Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, 35(1), 407–414. Accessed Online August 2021: (PDF) Reaching Spanish-speaking smokers online: A 10-year worldwide research program (researchgate.net).
  • Muroff, J., Robinson, W., Chassler, D., López, L. M., Gaitan, E., Lundgren, L., & Gustafson, D. H. (2017). “Use of a smartphone recovery tool for Latinxs with co-occurring alcohol and other drug disorders and mental disorders.” Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 13(4), 280–290. See: Use of a Smartphone Recovery Tool for Latinos with Co-Occurring Alcohol and Other Drug Disorders and Mental Disorders. - Abstract - Europe PMC.
  • National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine (2016). Improving the Health of Women in the United States: Workshop Summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
  • Oparah, J.C., Arega, H., Hudson, D. and Jones, L. (2017). Battling Over Birth: Black Women and the Maternal Health Care Crisis. Praclarus Press.
  • Powell-Bennett, C. (2017). The Influence of Culture on Conflict Management Styles and Willingness to Use Mediation: A Comparative Study of African American and Afro Caribbeans (Jamaicans) in South Florida. PhD Thesis. Nova Southeastern University. Accessed Online February 2022: The Influence of Culture on Conflict Management Styles and Willingness to Use Mediation: A Comparative Study of African Americans and Afro-Caribbeans (Jamaicans) in South Florida - ProQuest.
  • Ramos, G. and Chavira, D.A. (2019). “Use of Technology to Provide Mental Health Care for Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Evidence, Promise, and Challenges.” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice. Accessed Online August 2021: Use of Technology to Provide Mental Health Care for Racial and Ethnic Minorities: Evidence, Promise, and Challenges (rachaelmental.org).
  • Sabharwal, A., Fields, S., Hilliard, M.E. and DeSalvo, D.J. (2020). “Digital technologies to support behaviour change: challenges and opportunities.” David C. Klonoff, David Kerr and Shelagh A. Mulvaney (eds.), Diabetes Digital Health. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 37-50.
  • Smedley, B.N., Smith, A. and Nelson, (2003). Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. Washington D.C.: The National Academies Press.
  • Sone, P.M. (2016). “Relevance of Traditional Methods of Conflict Resolution in Justice Systems in Africa.” Africa Insight, 46(3), 51-54.
  • Stafford, I.A., Belfort, M.A. and Dildy, G.A. (2019). “Etiology and Management of Hemorrhage.” Jeffrey P. Phelan, Luis D. Pacheco, Michael R. Foley, George R. Saade, Gary A. Dildy and Michael A. Belfort (eds.), Critical Care Obstetrics. Hobken, NJ and Chichester, West Sussex: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Stawarz, K., Cox. A.L. and Blandford, A. (2015). “Beyond Self-Tracking and Reminders: designing smartphone apps that support habit formation.” Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2245-54. Available Online: Beyond Self-Tracking and Reminders | Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
  • Stoto, M.A., Abel, C. and Dievler, A. (1996). Healthy Communities: New Partnerships for the Future of Public Health. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press.
  • Titov, N., Hadjistavropoulos, H.D., Nielssen, O. Mohr, D.C., Anderssen, G. and Dear, B.F. (2019). “From Research to Practice: Ten Lessons in Delivering Digital Mental Health Services.” Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8, 1239.
  • Warner, K.D. and Lightfoot, K. (2014). “Theoretical Basis of Community/Public Health Nursing.” Judith Ann Allender, Cherie Rector and Kristine D. Warner (eds.), Community and Public Health Nursing: Promoting the Public’s Health. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer|Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 438-459.
  • Washington, H. (2006). Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. New York: Doubleday.
  • ________________(2015). “Epidemics of Conspiracy.” University of Cambridge. Centre for Research in the Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (CRASSH). Suspect Science: Climate Change, Epidemics and Questions of Conspiracy Conference. 19th September 2015.
  • Van der Kolk, B. (2014). The Body Keeps the Score: Brain, Mind and Body in the Healing of Trauma. New York: Penguin Books.
  • Williams, Q.M. (2021). “The Effects of Trauma and Chronic Stress on Black Women’s Reproductive and Sexual Health.” Vanessa P. Jackson, Jacqueline M. Holland and Julia R. Miller Arline (eds.), African Americans in the Human Sciences: Challenges and Opportunities. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. 93-115.


Further Reading

Our Partner(s)


Downloadable Resources

Hover and click to download


"; err += "
"; err += "You have some jquery.js library include that comes after the Slider Revolution files js inclusion.
"; err += "To fix this, you can:
    1. Set 'Module General Options' -> 'Advanced' -> 'jQuery & OutPut Filters' -> 'Put JS to Body' to on"; err += "
    2. Find the double jQuery.js inclusion and remove it"; err += "
"; err += ""; var slider = document.getElementById(sliderID); slider.innerHTML = err; slider.style.display = "block"; } }